Peter's Ancient History and Religion Pages

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Ancient History and Religion with Peter Eyland

Ancient Greek Religion Glossary F -> L

faux de mieux


French: for lack of something better

Neils p42;



encircle with an ornamental band?

Neils p118; ACOD




Buxton p72

genos (s)
gene (pl)

γένος , εος or ους , τό

clan, race, stock, kin
2. direct descent, opp. collateral relationship
II. offspring, even of a single descendant,
2. collectively, offspring, posterity,
III. generally, race, of beings,
b. clan, house, family; esp. at Athens and elsewhere as a subdivision of the "fratria"; = Lat. gens
c. tribe, as a subdivision of "ethnos"
d. caste,
e. of animals, breed,
2. age, generation: hence, age, time of life,
IV. sex
V. class, sort, kind
2. in Logic, opp. "eidos" (species),
3. in the animal kingdom, "ta megista genos", = the modern Classes, such as birds, fishes; so in the vegetable kingdom,
b. genus c. "genos ti" a species of plant,
4. "ta genê"., the elements

Buxton p43; LSJ



Those who dress the statue of Athena at Argos

Neils p51



four horse chariot race

Neils p97



Harmodius and Aristogiton conspired to kill the despots Hippias and Hipparchus (Pisistratus’ sons) at the Panathenaea, when all the citizens were required to attend in arms. They killed Hipparchus. Harmodius was immediately killed by guards. Aristogiton died under torture.
Hippias was expelled in B.C.E. 510, four years after the assassination of Hipparchus.

W. Smith #5



sanctuary officer

Buxton p39



sanctuary treasurer

Buxton p39



judges of the games

Neils p110


( ἡμιθέοι

"mortal gods" or "daimones". Famous men who were revered after their deaths.

Buxton p183



citizen order - in chariots

Buxton p70



glory of Hera; Son of Zeus and Alceme (mortal). Famous for 12 labours.




a temple dedicated to the Greek goddess Hera

Buxton p27

hero kosmei


an adornment for a hero, such as an inscription on a pillar (see kosmein below)

Buxton p212






ἡρῷον, τό

1. shrine of a hero,
2. tomb
3. (sc. "metron" ) hexameter,
4. "ta hêrôa", festival of a hero

Buxton p186; LSJ


ἥρως , ὁ

(a) In Homer and Hesiod, primarily a warrior of renown during his lfetime. On death his shade is far from his grave and in the Underworld. (b) Also, a dead warrior honoured by sacrifice and cult at his grave. These are "mortal gods".
2. the Fourth Age of men, between "daimones" and "anthrôpoi"
3. heroes, as objects of worship; esp. of local deities, founders of cities, patrons of tribes, etc. heroes after whom the "phylai" were named, of historical persons to whom divine honours were paid,
II. later,= "makaritês" , deceased,
III. "hê poikilos" = "stigmatias"
IV. "bous hêrôs" = "hegemôn"

Buxton p182; LSJ



a daughter of Kekrops, worshipped on the Acropolis at Athens. Athena entrusted the care of Erichthonios to her with instructions not to open the basket where the baby was. Herse and her sister Aglauros opened the chest and saw Erichthonios was half snake and threw themselves off the Akropolis. Her other sister Pandrosos survived.

Neils p82



"koine hestia" - the common hearth of the polis

Buxton p25




Buxton p40

hieron alsos


holy of holies in disctinction to a profane grove

Buxton p168



rite of suppliant for asylum he sat down in the sanctuary

Buxton p159

hiketes or hiketis


male or female suppliant for asylum

Buxton p159



The Greeks Himation tended to be without decoration when worn by men. And it is the favored garment of the politicians and the intellectuals. The ease and graceful way in which this woolen garment was worn affected one's social prestige. Plato, not one to shrink from making definitive arguments, stated that it was absolutely necessary that a man should know how to throw his Himation from left to right as a gentleman should, and that a gentleman should never extend his arm outside his Himation




citizen order - riding

Buxton p70



A distance of 4 stades (approx 250 m)

Neils p97



Ancient Greek iambic poet, inventor of parody




boundary markers (see below)

Buxton p73


ὅρος, ὁ

boundary, landmark,
2. metaph. the boundary of a woman's mind
II. memorial stone or pillar,
b. pillar set up on mortgaged property, to serve as a bond or register of the debt,
c. boundary-stone marking the limits of temple-lands,
III. standard, measure; rule, canon: hence, end, aim,
IV. in Logic, term of a proposition (whether subject or predicate),
b. definition
c. premiss of a syllogism,
2. Math., term of a ratio or proportion,
3. pl., terms, conditions,
4. Astrol., οἱ τρεῖς ὄ the three terms, used in various calculations



Υακίνθια, τα

A Laconian festival in honour of Hyacinthus

Hyacinthus, a Laconian youth, beloved by Apollo, who killed him by an unlucky cast of the discus.
B. as Appellat.,
I. wild hyacinth, bluebell, Scilla bifolia.
2. blue larkspur, Delphinium Ajacis; said to have sprung up from the blood of Hyacinthus or (acc. to others) of Telamonian Ajax: and the ancients thought they could decipher on the petals the initial letters AI, or the interj. AIAI,
3. "hyakinthia porphyreê", prob. Lilium Martagon
II. "hê hyakinthos :--a precious stone, of blue colour, perh. aquamarine,
III. name of a blue colour

Buxton p27; LSJ



carrying of water jars

Buxton p49



German: to impress a person strongly

Buxton p287; LT


καλλιγένεια , ἡ

bearer of a fair offspring, name by which Demeter was invoked in the Thesmophoria; or her nurse; epith. of the Moon; of the Earth:
neut. pl., "Kalligeneia thuein" offer sacrifice to Demeter

Buxton p20; LSJ



Adorning festival of Athena on 26/7 Thargelion. Part of the Cleansing festival of the wooden Athena image where the image is bathed and anointed and re-robed

Neils p48



A girl who carried a (rectangular) basket

Buxton p285; Neils p59, 179


κάνεον , τό

rectangular sacrificial basket of reed or cane, esp. bread-basket
esp. used for the sacred barley at sacrifices
carried in procession
as a votive offering (perh. a vessel of basketshape)

Buxton p216



a two handled pottery jug

Neils p109

karkinoi iatrikoi


medical pincers

Buxton p203



embossed small gold or silver plates

Buxton p196




Buxton p276



"tail face" i.e half a snake. Earth-born (autochthonic, along with Erechtheus) and common ancestor of all Athenians.
He personifies the sacred snake on the Akropolis. His daughter Pandrosos raised Erichthonios.

Neils p9, p62



horse race

Neils p97




Neils p102


κίστη , ἡ

cylindrical basket, hamper;
writing-case, desk; voting-urn.

Buxton p216


κιθάρα, ἡ

From kithara= lyre, Hdt.1.24, Epich.79, E.Ion882 (anap.), hence lyre player

Neils p180, LSJ



Athenian credited with reforming the constitution of Athens in 508/7 BCE and making it democratic

Buxton p27



glory; the poem or song that conveys glory; fame


kosmos and kosmein


"kosmos" = order and "kosmein" = to arrange or adorn

Buxton p211



"nurse of children" Title of Gê at Panathenaia

Neils p85

kyklios khoros


dithyrambic chorus

Neils p98


Λακωνικός , ή , όν

A Laconian.
Laconia is the southeastern district of the Peloponnese.
It is bounded on the north by the Argolid and Arcadia, on the west by Messenia, and on the south by the Aegean Sea.
Laconia is a mountainous limestone region whose eastern portion is defined by Mt. Parnon, which rises to nearly 1818 m near the Argive frontier, and runs southeast towards Cape Malea.
In the west is Mt. Taygetus (2364 m), which runs north to south forming a high range overlooking the plain of Sparta.
Between barren Parnon and the dark cliffs of Taygetus is the valley of the Eurotas River which flows into the Laconian Gulf.




Torch race at the Panathenaia in the evening after the procession when fire is brought to the altar

Neils p97



Greek pottery deep bowl with a rounded bottom. Usually it needed a stand to remain upright

Neils p109



Greek pottery vessel with a narrow body and one handle attached to the neck of the vessel. It was used for storing oil, especially olive oil. It was used for anointing dead bodies of unmarried men

Neils p179, 180



"mashaling of the host" where the grand parade of the Panathenaia started from. It was at a city gate in the NW

Neils p58

Locrian maidens


Women from an ancient Greek tribe in central Greece. They held special religious rights, to which men could only gain access by marrying them.

Buxton p289

locus classicus


Latin: a passage of text frequently cited to illustrate a usage or prove a point of doctrine

Buxton p186; Guinagh



A Greek pottery vessel with an elongated neck and two handles. It was used to hold water during marriage and funeral rituals, and placed in the tombs of the unmarried.

Neils p179

lygos or agnus castus


plant thought to produce infertility; wreaths

Buxton p282; 283



a mountain with a Zeus sanctuary

Buxton p27; 166

lysis kakôn

λύσις κακῶν

release from evils

Buxton p82

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